|A Membrane-Bound Cytochrome Enables To Conserve Energy from Extracellular Electron Transfer.
|Year of Publication
|Holmes DE, Ueki T, Tang H-Y, Zhou J, Smith JA, Chaput G, Lovley DR
|2019 Aug 20
|Acetates, Anthraquinones, Cytochromes, Electron Transport, Electrons, Ferric Compounds, Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal, Gram-Negative Bacteria, Membranes, Mesna, Methane, Methanol, Methanosarcina, Oxidation-Reduction, Oxidoreductases, Transcriptome
Extracellular electron exchange in species and closely related plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and enhances the speed and stability of anaerobic digestion by facilitating efficient syntrophic interactions. Here, we grew with methanol provided as the electron donor and the humic analogue, anthraquione-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), provided as the electron acceptor when methane production was inhibited with bromoethanesulfonate. AQDS was reduced with simultaneous methane production in the absence of bromoethanesulfonate. Transcriptomics revealed that expression of the gene for the transmembrane, multiheme, -type cytochrome MmcA was higher in AQDS-respiring cells than in cells performing methylotrophic methanogenesis. A strain in which the gene for MmcA was deleted failed to grow via AQDS reduction but grew with the conversion of methanol or acetate to methane, suggesting that MmcA has a specialized role as a conduit for extracellular electron transfer. Enhanced expression of genes for methanol conversion to methyl-coenzyme M and the Rnf complex suggested that methanol is oxidized to carbon dioxide in AQDS-respiring cells through a pathway that is similar to methyl-coenzyme M oxidation in methanogenic cells. However, during AQDS respiration the Rnf complex and reduced methanophenazine probably transfer electrons to MmcA, which functions as the terminal reductase for AQDS reduction. Extracellular electron transfer may enable the survival of methanogens in dynamic environments in which oxidized humic substances and Fe(III) oxides are intermittently available. The availability of tools for genetic manipulation of makes it an excellent model microbe for evaluating -type cytochrome-dependent extracellular electron transfer in The discovery of a methanogen that can conserve energy to support growth solely from the oxidation of organic carbon coupled to the reduction of an extracellular electron acceptor expands the possible environments in which methanogens might thrive. The potential importance of -type cytochromes for extracellular electron transfer to syntrophic bacterial partners and/or Fe(III) minerals in some was previously proposed, but these studies with provide the first genetic evidence for cytochrome-based extracellular electron transfer in The results suggest parallels with Gram-negative bacteria, such as and species, in which multiheme outer-surface -type cytochromes are an essential component for electrical communication with the extracellular environment. offers an unprecedented opportunity to study mechanisms for energy conservation from the anaerobic oxidation of one-carbon organic compounds coupled to extracellular electron transfer in with implications not only for methanogens but possibly also for that anaerobically oxidize methane.
|PubMed Central ID